by Alan [email protected] up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up A STUDY of Le Chéile’s Restorative Justice Project in Limerick has shown that restorative justice should be a preferred option for young offenders.Ireland’s first and only non-statutory youth restorative justice service provides a range of services to young people who have been involved in crime and are engaged with the Probation Service.The study carried out by Quality Matters found significant benefits not only for young people but also for the families and the victims of crime. The evaluation revealed that young people displayed a significant increase in empathy towards victims after engaging with the project, as well as better family relationships and less contact with the Gardaí and court system.Parents also reported positive outcomes for family life and improved relationships while victims of crime found that restorative justice (RJ) was a far better experience than the traditional criminal justice system. They stated that by participating in the project, they had a meaningful voice and found it more respectful and inclusive than the traditional court process.The project, established in 2010, works with young people on probation using a range of RJ models including face-to-face meetings, proxy victims, victim empathy programmes, and reparation. The RJ project is part of Le Chéile Mentoring & Youth Justice Support Services, which provides volunteer mentoring as well as RJ, and family support services to young people who offend. Previous articleLimerick Council hears passionate call for marriage equalityNext articleMajor rally against water charges planned for Limerick Alan Jacqueshttp://www.limerickpost.ie WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads TAGSLe Chéile’s Restorative Justice ProjectlimerickProbation ServiceQuality Matters Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live Twitter Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival Advertisement Facebook Linkedin Limerick Artist ‘Willzee’ releases new Music Video – “A Dream of Peace” RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR WhatsApp Print Vanishing Ireland podcast documenting interviews with people over 70’s, looking for volunteers to share their stories NewsLocal NewsYoung offenders benefit from restorative justice in LimerickBy Alan Jacques – January 30, 2015 1053 Email Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live
The innate immune response is tuned to pounce on types of molecules that are commonly found on bacteria and viruses but not in human cells. When a cell detects these invader molecules, it triggers production of an antiviral interferon protein. Interferon triggers the infected cell to die, limiting infection. Older Immune Systems Are Weaker Maybe your physician has checked your white blood cell levels. That’s a measurement of whether you have more B-cells and T-cells in your blood than usual, presumably because they’re fighting infection. However, the statistics get grimmer as the patients get older. Whereas people in their 60s have a 0.4 percent chance of dying, people in their 70s have a 1.3 percent chance of dying, and people over 80 have a 3.6 percent chance of dying. While this may not sound like a high chance of death, during the outbreak in Italy, 83 percent of those who succumbed to COVID-19 infection were over age 60. When a pathogen invades, the difference between illness and health is a race between how fast the pathogen can spread within you and how fast your immune response can react without causing too much collateral damage. The mist ejected by a sneeze can launch viruses airborne, so other people can inhale them. That’s where your immune system comes in. It’s your body’s defense system against these kinds of invaders. Before you’re even born, your body starts producing specialized B-cells and T-cells – types of white blood cells that can recognize pathogens and help block their growth. Another type of innate immune cell, called a monocyte, acts as a sort of cellular bouncer, getting rid of any infected cells it finds and signaling the adaptive immune response to shift into gear. Keeping at least 6 feet away from other people helps significantly reduce your chance of being infected by these aerosol droplets. But there’s still the possibility for virus to contaminate surfaces that infected people have touched or coughed on. Therefore, the best way to protect vulnerable older and immunocompromised people is to stay away from them until there is no longer a risk. When you’re very young, you don’t have a lot of these B- or T-cells. It can be a challenge for your body to control infection because it’s simply not used to the job. As you mature, your adaptive immune system learns to recognize pathogens and handle these constant invasions, allowing you to fight off infection quickly and effectively. The coronavirus pandemic is taking a particularly harsh toll on older people. As you age, the reduced “attention span” of your innate and adaptive immune responses make it harder for the body to respond to viral infection, giving the virus the upper hand. Viruses can take advantage of your immune system’s slow start and quickly overwhelm you, resulting in serious disease and death. COVID-19 is caused by a respiratory virus, which can spread via tiny virus-containing droplets. Larger droplets fall to the ground quickly; very small droplets dry up. Mid-range droplets are of most concern because they can float in the air for a few feet before drying. These droplets can be inhaled into the lungs. Data from the initial outbreak in China and then Italy show that infected people under the age of 60 are at low—but not no—risk of dying from COVID-19. More recent data from the U.S. suggest that a higher rate of people in their 30s and 40s have experienced severe illness and even death than previously thought. Curiously, young children do not appear to be at increased risk of serious COVID-19 complications, in contrast to what happens with other viruses, like the seasonal flu. Low-grade chronic inflammation in individuals that commonly occurs during aging can also dull the ability of the innate and adaptive immune responses to react to pathogens. It’s similar to becoming used to an annoying sound over time. The innate and adaptive immune systems can act together as a fine-tuned machine to detect and clear out pathogens. Everyone, no matter their age, needs to protect themselves from infection, not just to keep themselves healthy but also to help protect the most vulnerable. Given the difficulty older individuals have in controlling viral infection, the best option is for these individuals to avoid becoming infected by viruses in the first place. During an infection, your B-cells can proliferate and produce antibodies that grab onto pathogens and block their ability to spread within your body. T-cells work by recognizing infected cells and killing them. Together they make up what scientists call your “adaptive” immune system. The Covid-19, health, safety and pandemic concept – senior old lonely woman wearing protective medical mask sitting near the window in his house for protection from virus Social Distancing Is Vital While white blood cells are powerful people protectors, they’re not enough on their own. Luckily, your immune system has another layer, what’s called your “innate” immune response. Every cell has its own little immune system that allows it to directly respond to pathogens quicker than it takes to mobilize the adaptive response. What is it that puts older people at increased risk from viruses like this? It’s primarily thought to be due to changes in the human immune system as they age. Your Body’s Tools to Fight Off Virus Infections Brian Geiss is an Associate Professor of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology at Colorado State University As people age, their innate and adaptive immune responses change, shifting this balance. This is where washing hands, avoiding touching your face, self-isolation and social distancing all become important, especially for COVID-19. As you go about your life, your body is constantly bombarded by pathogens – bacteria, fungi and viruses that can make you sick. A human body is a great place for these organisms to grow and thrive, providing a nice warm environment with plenty of nutrients. As COV1D-19 continues to spread, this older age group will continue to be at risk for serious disease and death.